Several years ago when I was speaking on behalf of Environmental Refugees, people thought I was exaggerating the amount of Climate Change that was going to be occurring in the near future. I had to explain, as others have done, that the Climate models proposed by reputable organizations like the the UN's International Governmental Panel on Climate Change, were far too conservative in their estimates. In 2007, the IPCC was predicting a sea level rise by the end of the century of 18 to 59 centimeters for sea level rise, however, by 2009 had revised that measure to up to a meter or 3 feet by the end of the century. Now, scientists are realizing that the changes occurring, particularly in the Arctic, are happening on an exponential scale. This summer in 2012, Greenland lost one million square miles of Ice in 9 days1 That unprecedented Ice Melt is evidence of the exponential changes in our Climate models. There are also record droughts and wild fires occurring in the United States this year, pointing to other consequences of a heating planet. However, my focus is on Sea level rise due to Ice Melt. Due to the rapid warming of the Arctic and to a lesser extent, the Antarctic, we are entering a period of rapidly melting ice and rising sea levels. For the first time in the modern era, we have seen Ice Free periods in the Arctic. Furthermore, countries of the Northern hemisphere are planning to divide up the Oil reserves that are going to be accessible as the Arctic loses more and more ice and becomes easier to navigate. But as these large amounts of Ice melt and enter the ocean, the amount of sea level rise will begin to increase exponentially, flooding low lying inland areas and completely submerging entire Island chains. As of now, one island chain in the south Pacific, the Carterets, have already begun to relocate their population to the mainland of Papua New Guinea, as has been recorded in the documentary Sun Come Up by Jennifer Redfearn. Also, the Prime Minister of the Kiribati Island chain has already begun the process for purchasing land for his people 1000 miles south on the Island chain of Fiji, which has land at a higher sea level.2 This tragedy is one of many of the possible effects of a planet with a significantly higher amount of heat and water vapor. Scientists are predicting newer and more powerful storms as well. To mitigate these harmful outcomes of Global Warming, I am proposing a solution that has both a historical basis and will hopefully reduce the impact of Sea Level rise. The Salvation Lakes (as submitted to the International Journal of Ecology and Eco-Solutions) The last period of time when the Earth was exposed to a sudden increase of water on the planet was at the end of the last Ice age. At that time, much of the Earth's water was locked up in large glaciers and lakes. One such area where this was the case was in North America 8000 years ago. Covering an area much larger than the Great Lakes combined, Lake Agassiz was the largest feature of Central Canada. Glaciers at that time were in slow steady retreat. Then all at once, the Glacial dam that held Lake Agassiz at bay gave away. In a geological instant, hundreds of millions of gallons of freshwater poured into the Ocean. Professor Chris Turney of Exeter in England, postulates that such a large flood was perhaps the Biblical Flood, and that the sudden and dramatic loss of coastal cities caused the age of agrarian farming across Europe.
"People living in what is now southeast Europe must have felt as though the whole world had flooded. This could well have been the origin of the Noah's Ark story. Entire coastal communities must have been displaced, forcing people to migrate in their thousands. As these agricultural communities moved west, they would have taken farming with them across Europe. It was a revolutionary time." 3While there is debate as to whether a comet or eruption or some other event triggered this massive freshwater pulse and the draining of Lake Agassiz, or if the glacial dam just destabilized over centuries, the end result would have traumatic effects on the world wide coastal communities - submerging many and displacing thousands of people. With a rapidly destabilizing and warming planet - we too are seeing the initial changes causing displacement of peoples from Low Lying areas and Islands around the world. A Changed Weather Pattern The event known as the 'Great Flood' of the Old Testament is not an isolated story unique to one people or region. Across the World, almost every culture has an oral or written tradition of a day of a great flood and similar features of torrents of rain flooding the entire planet and all the people of the Earth perishing save one family and some animals saved in an Ark or Canoe or some other type of Wooden vessel. This is followed by a message delivered by a bird after the rains have stopped or some other omen letting the people know they can come out of their boat or Ark and start life back over. Another interesting aspect is that almost every culture also reports that this is the time that God or the Gods makes a promise not to destroy the world again by flood through the sign of a Rainbow. And many cultures report that this was the time of the old sun or the 'Water Sun' disappears and is replaced by the 'New' Sun.
The Gilgamesh Epic is not the only Sumerian/Babylonian legend that alludes to the Genesis Flood. In Babylon, the deity Marduk was said to have defeated the chaos monster Tiamat, dividing her in two, and using half of her body to create the celestial ocean, and earthly ocean, which were to be kept apart. Many people taught that chaos returned when the celestial ocean fell (the Flood). When this occurred, the old sun god Marduk was replaced with Shamah, the new sun god. 4This could possibly be a reference to the changed appearance of the sun after the Flood.Other Legends of a Changed Sun Other cultures have similar legends that speak of a change in the appearance of the sun, with the new sun commonly said to appear at the beginning of a new age. Many of these ancient legends speak of a water heaven that obstructed the power of the sun god. One day the water heaven was defeated and the "sun power" was unleashed.
The Greeks believed that Helios replaced Hyperion after the banishment of the water heaven. 5 The Persians believed that Ahura-Mazda was replaced by Mithras after the banishment of Varuna, the water heaven. 6 The Mayans called the first sun the "Water Sun". 7In similar fashion, the South American Indians said the "Water Sun" was ended by a flood. 8What stands out to me, is that there seems to be a fundamental difference in the weather patterns recorded by the people's oral tradition - The Old Testament states the following
Genesis 2:5-7 "the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground" 9The people of various different cultures report of a 'new sun' or the end of the 'Water Sun' and that water fell from a place it was stored in the sky, and that a rainbow was reported as a new phenomena. What this seems to me is an actual event - and should be taken at face value. During an earlier age - perhaps the last mini Ice Age, the Earth was much cooler, and perhaps life for people could only exist in the tropic zones of the Equator - with much of the Northern and Southern latitudes being too brutally cold. And perhaps much of the Water vapor of the Earth, especially in the Atmosphere was frozen ice crystals. That would make the Sun's rays most likely more occluded and therefore, perhaps even a different color. So with a traumatic event, perhaps a comet impact, or the sudden explosion of massive Volcanoes, the Earth went through a serious change. A blast of heat through the atmosphere - particularly plausible from what we have seen in historical Comet or Asteroid impacts - like the one in Siberia in Tunguska impact of 1908. That impact is believed to have been an object nearly the size of a football field and that it exploded in the atmosphere - leveling an area of nearly 900 square miles. Fortunately, that place was remote and did not happen near a city, but this I find interesting"
The effect of the collision was also felt in Britain, with a reader writing to the Times newspaper inquiring why the sky was so bright at night. She didn't receive an answer in 1908, but a 1991 Guardian Notes and Queries offered the hypothesis that the amount of dust thrown up by the blast diffracted the sun's rays, leading to "someone [playing] a round of golf at St Andrews at 2.30 in the morning." 10The heat and light released from that upper atmosphere impact could be seen as light thousands of miles away in Great Britain. If in ancient times there was a much larger impact, the heat released could have triggered a great massive release of water vapor into the atmosphere, as well as heat. If the water in the atmosphere was mostly frozen and static, then it suddenly would have returned to liquid form and combined with the sudden release of lakes in Glacial regions of the World, then there would have been a deluge seen by many cultures. Complete with phenomena of days upon days of rain and rising seas. Again from Professor Chris Turney:
Archaeological records show that around this time there was a sudden expansion of farming and pottery production across Europe, marking the end of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherer era and the start of the Neolithic. The link between rising sea levels and such massive social change has previously been unclear. The researchers created reconstructions of the Mediterranean and Black Sea shoreline before and after the rise in sea levels. They estimated that nearly 73,000 square km of land was lost to the sea over a period of 34 years.11This is relevant as well, that after this impact or event the world changed suddenly and drastically, weather patterns changed, the appearance of the Sun changed, rain patterns began, and the shorelines of the world continued to retreat for decades. But is there any other evidence of an impact - well we have numerous modern day movies and entertainment considering the possibility of another Meteor or Asteroid or Comet, and our scientists have recorded numerous crater impacts - some of which are considered to have ended different ages of the Dinosaurs. But in ancient culture, the appearance of a comet is usually considered a bad harbinger. If there was a particularly large comet, and it impacted the atmosphere, this certainly would be in our collective memories and legends - and there is. Around the world we have legends of fire breathing dragons flying through the sky. In North and South American cultures, a 'feathered serpent' represents a God - the word 'Comet' itself is from the Greek for 'Hairy star'12 The mist given off from the Comet's tail most likely was observed as feathers or hair. The 'Feathered Serpent' is a very precise description when you break down the etymology of the source words:
Quetzalcoatl is composed of two words: quetzal + coatl. Quetzal refers to feathers and coatl refers to a snake thus the traditional translation of Quetzalcoatl is "feathered serpent."Yet quetzal does not simply refer to any old feathers of any old bird. Quetzal refers specifically to the bright green tail feathers of the Resplendent Quetzal bird from southern Mexico. Of all the birds the Maya and Aztecs could have used to represent Quetzalcoatl, they chose the Resplendent Quetzal. Why?
The Resplendent Quetzal, known simply as the Quetzal to Mexican peoples, is known for its brilliant green feathers. More specifically, the Quetzal was known for its long green tail feathers. The tail feathers of the Quetzal are longer than the entire body length of the bird. A bird that flies across the sky with a really long tail is a logical choice if the Maya intended to represent a comet. 13Now, I have presented all of this not as a way to have us guess about our past, but to help deal with our future. Right now, due to Anthropomorphic (man made) carbon emissions, our Glacial Ice Caps are destabilizing very rapidly. Sea ice is so low in the Arctic that Governments of the world are planning the usage of a new North Sea Passage. 14 And furthermore, we are adding millions and millions of gallons of freshwater into the Worlds Oceans' and into the atmosphere, creating unknown effects on our weather patterns. The initial events occurring are massive storms, happening more and more frequently, Hurricane Katrina happening in the Hurricane prone Gulf Coast and even more surprising, Hurricane Sandy in a Northern latitude. There is also evidence that the massive melting on Greenland is not just causing sea level rise, but could contribute to tectonic instability and an increasing frequency in Earthquakes. That's because each movement by a glacier is a multi ton event and it reads on the Richter scale as an 'ice quake' - which sends a ripple throughout the Earth's interior - thus shaking other fault lines. And they are speeding up in number exponentially...
...quakes ranged from six to 15 per year from 1993 to 2002, then jumped to 20 in 2003, 23 in 2004, and 32 in the first 10 months of 2005 - matching an increase in Greenland temperatures. 15The problem is that the ice melting is causing the land mass of Greenland to suddenly lighten and lift up from the Magma bed it rests upon. This also can destabilize volcanoes.
A cubic metre of ice weighs nearly a tonne and some glaciers are more than a kilometre thick. When the weight is removed through melting, the suppressed strains and stresses of the underlying rock come to life.(from Alan Glazner, a volcano specialist at the University of North Carolina)
"When you melt glacial ice, several hundred metres to a kilometre thick . . . you've decreased the load on the crust and so you've decreased the pressure holding the volcanic conduits closed." "They're cracks, that's how magmas gets to the surface . . . and where they hit the surface, that's where you get a volcano." 16Additionally, further research has shown that water pressure from inland hurricanes and rapid accumulation of water from melting ice caps can cause under sea tsunamis to increase. A staggering half of all the Earth moved by submarine landslides over the past 125,000 years apparently happened between 8,000 and 15,000 years ago.
"This time period coincides with the period of most rapid sea level rise following the end of the last ice age,"said study co-author Daniel Brothers, a geophysicist at the U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Science Center in Woods Hole, Mass. 17So there is the potential for the coastlines to be unstable due to tectonic shifts from both the water pressure increasing Tsunami activity and from the multiple Ice Quakes from melting and shifting Glaciers. We have seen numerous deadly Earthquakes and Tsunamis in recent history - particularly the December 26, 2004 Tsunami of the Indian Ocean, which killed over 200,000 people was the third largest Earthquake ever recorded. 18 And the coastlines are not the only place at risk. On September 16, 2013 in Colorado in the interior of the United States in a mountainous region at a Mile High Elevation - far from the Ocean, a rainstorm hit the region for 3 days and unleashed massive flooding that the National Weather Service called 'Biblical' in proportion.
"The Colorado Flood should be looked at as a sequence of disaster after disaster after disaster as directly linked to Climate Change"19Professor Jennifer Francis of Rutgers University has noted that the heating of the Arctic is not just causing the Sea Ice to melt, but it is also changing the way the World's Jet Stream functions. The Jet Stream normally moves South towards the equator, heats up, then moves north to the Arctic, then cools down, and slopes back down to the Equator. This is what drives all of the weather patterns across the world. However with the rapid heating of the Arctic, this cycle is being disrupted. The Jet Stream now flows South to the Equator, heats up and then when it heads North to the Arctic, it stalls out because the Arctic now is nearly as warm as the temperate zones. The second way that Arctic amplification is expected to influence the jet stream and our weather is by increasing the "waviness" of the jet stream. Because of Arctic amplification, the northern peaks of waves, called ridges, will experience more warming than the southward dips, called troughs. This is expected to cause the ridges to stretch northward, which will increase the size of the waves. Larger swings in the jet stream allow frigid air from the Arctic to plunge farther south, as well as warm, moist tropical air to penetrate northward. These wavy flows often lead to record-breaking temperatures. Meteorologists have also known for a long time that larger jet-stream waves progress eastward more slowly, as will the weather systems associated with them. Consequently this represents another mechanism that will cause weather conditions to linger. 20 This weakened or 'broken' Jet stream is allowing warmer air farther north into the Arctic, and causing storms that usually move through a region in a short period of time to stall out. The result are storms like Hurricane Sandy in October of 2012, which shifted dramatically from the southern Atlantic to the Northeast - created a once in 700 year Hurricane that completely inundated New York and New Jersey, flooding Subways, cutting off roads, destroying houses and taking over 200 lives.
Estimates as of June 2013 assess damage to have been over $68 billion (2013 USD), a total surpassed only by Hurricane Katrina. At least 286 people were killed along the path of the storm in seven countries. The severe and widespread damage the storm caused in the United States, as well as its unusual merge with a frontal system, resulted in the nicknaming of the hurricane by the media and several organizations of the U.S. government "Superstorm Sandy".21While past hurricanes like Katrina have been unusually strong, they have had historical context for the region where they strike, the Gulf Coast or the Southern area of the Hemisphere. But Hurricane Sandy struck in the late fall and in the Northern Hemisphere. The "Biblical" rain storm that hit Colorado did so during the dryer part of the Summer, typically when people are more concerned about Forest fires. Both of these weather events 'stalled' over a particular region and caused massive flooding - primarily due to the Jet stream failing to operate as it has usually operated in known history. Morally, I first believed it was incumbent upon us in the developed world to reach out to low lying islands and help relocate those individuals to mainlands and help them adjust to losing their homelands. Now, I am convinced to mitigate the worst effects of Climate Change, we must engage in Geo-Engineering. Geo-Engineering This concept is one that holds that we humans use our technology to change the face of the planet to make it more suitable for us. There are many kinds of Geo-Engineering, from damming rivers to building dikes to deforestation and pumping huge amounts of oil out of the Earth and burning it into our atmosphere. Yet there is a useful way we can do this an offset some of the dangers of rapid climate change. We know that huge sums of Water are being freed from ice and released into our oceans and air, while at the same time the atmosphere is heating up. Those two combinations make for more and more severe storms, ultimately making coastal and island living near impossible. In addition to this, we are seeing that even inland areas will be at risk for inundation from massive rain storms as well. And there are also the weather extremes. Each year we are seeing record heat, record drought, record rain, record storms in the same areas, indicating climate instability. The heat is causing too much water to enter the atmosphere, and the Earth's weather patterns are distributing that water back onto the mainlands and swamping the islands and coastlines. We must redistribute that water through technology, instead of letting Mother Nature do it through more and more fierce typhoons, hurricanes and rainstorms. How do we do this? Fortunately, the technology already exists with us and has the potential to bolster low fresh water reserves around the World. Through technology, we have had the ability to create freshwater from Salt water through desalination plants which are in use in several countries. They, however, have typically been powered by coal. Now however, through the usage of Concentrated Solar Power Plants - we can create rivers and lakes in places that are now deserts. From IBM
Living in the desert comes with major advantages and disadvantages -- excess solar power and not enough water, to be more specific. Now IBM and Saudi Arabia's King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology are teaming up to solve the water problem with solar-powered desalination technology. Eventually, the two organizations hope to construct a desalination plant in Al Khafji, Saudi Arabia that can harness sunlight to generate 7.9 million gallons of water daily -- enough for 100,000 people. Acording to Chandrasekhar (Spike) Narayan, who leads the Science and Technology Organization at IBM's Almaden Research Center, "We can conceivably create a river of fresh water in countries that don't have rivers-water for the masses at reasonable costs".22What I would propose is that we use this technology along with Wind Turbines to create several large scale Concentrating Solar-powered Desalination plants - preferably on each of the continents. The purpose is to fill up large lakes that are losing water due to higher temperatures, such as the Great Lakes, which are at record lows. Water levels in the Great Lakes have been below normal since the late 1990s. On Lake Superior, they hit their all time low in 2007. Lakes Huron and Michigan hit their historic lows in December and January. Drew Gronewold, a hydrologist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, said the drop in water levels is largely the result of reduced rainfall and increased evaporation.
"Clearly what we're seeing here is a tendency for increased evaporative loss off of the lake surfaces, particularly off of Lakes Michigan, Huron and Lake Superior," he said. "That's a large reason why we see a significant drop in water levels, particularly in the late 1990s." 23So in places like the Great Lakes, Concentrating Solar-powered Desalination plants would be built in the Southwest of the United States and Wind mills would help pump desalinated water through miles of pipeline to refill the Great Lakes and keep them stabilized. In other places, like the desert Southwest, these same plants could re-create ancient lakes that have existed in past times, such as the Lake Mohave region of Southern California. And also, create new lakes, such as Lake Buena Vista in the Mountains of Colorado. However, in my opinion, the best area to geo-engineer lakes and river systems are in the areas of Great Ancient lakes that are now deserts. Geologically, these areas are known to have been great lakes of the past.
Up to 30,000 years ago, this corner of south-eastern Australia was a paradise. Fish swam in deep freshwater lakes, giant versions of kangaroos and flightless birds grazed around the lush surrounding vegetation, and in sheltered camps people lived peaceful lives without want. Perhaps children played, splashing about in the water at the lake's edge, while adults chatted about the day's hunt and cooked their evening meal on open fires. Then, 16,000 years ago, the lakes dried up and became the arid land of dunes and scrubby bush it is today. Gone are the fish and large mammals that lived there. Only the people, the aboriginal Paakantji, the Mutthi Mutthi and the Ngiyampaa tribes of the region remain. The place is now known as Lake Mungo National Park, a World Heritage Park that holds a very special place in human history 24Lake Mungo, and for that fact, the entire interior of Australia could be transformed from a Desert to a lush system of rivers and lakes and tropical rainforests. And the same could be achieved in Africa. There was there also an ancient 'great lake' known as 'Lake Sahara'
Beneath the sands of the Sahara Desert scientists have discovered evidence of a prehistoric megalake. Formed some 250,000 years ago when the Nile River pushed through a low channel near Wadi Tushka, it flooded the eastern Sahara, creating a lake that at its highest level covered more than 42,000 square miles. 25And also in other places in Asia and South America. You start in areas with massive amounts of sunlight, like the deserts of Australia, Africa, and the Southwestern North America, and create a Windmill driven pump system to pump saltwater from the Ocean into the interior to the deserts where the Concentrating Solar-powered Desalination Plants are located. There, the plants will desalinate huge amounts of freshwater and pump them to locations that are deserts or without lakes. For now let's say that these pipelines of freshwater just dump the water on a high dry plain. For now, let's say 3 years, the water just soaks into the desert sand. But soon, plant life returns in a fury to the area. In larger scale operations, the African Sahara could return to it's glory of a Tropical Rainforest within a Decade. Why are these Desert Lakes so important? For one, we know geologically they have existed in the past. So the re-creation of these Lakes is not out of the realm of possibility. Second, places like Africa and Australia have supported rainforests that are now gone. With Climate Change and global warming, we will need to off - set as much pollution and carbon dioxide as possible. Rainforest feed on Carbon Dioxide, while Deserts do not. Furthermore, these Rainforests create rain fall loops. Rainforest do not live because of the rain, the rain falls because of the the Rainforest. The Amazon rainforest is a mystery of many sorts. We've heard of the rare and unique flora and fauna of the place, and here's another intriguing aspect there: the Amazon is self-sufficient in rain as well!
The technique of "cloud seeding" used by rain-starved nations to induce rain is used naturally by the fungi and trees in the Amazon to produce rain. Scientists have discovered that trees and fungi release minute amounts of potassium-rich salt which is the cause of a large amount of rain in the area. Since they deflect light from the sun, it helps in cooling the Earth too.26Our Rainforest - with its symbiotic bio-system instinctively knows how to interact with the Earth's atmosphere to create more rainfall. What this means is that over the course of a few decades, massive lakes could be geo-engineered to offset the worst effects of Sea-level rise, thus saving low lying areas and peoples from the loss of their homelands. Furthermore, this would also mitigate the natural cycle of the Atmosphere's need to displace heat and moisture through Hurricanes, Typhoons and Tornadoes. This project must be taken on Internationally with a partnership of Business, Academia, Non-Governmental Organizations, and of course the Governments of the Developed Nations. The time to act on this project is now. We must create the Salvation Lakes program immediately to offset what will be rapidly occurring on our Planet. The Combination Windmill/Solar Power Desalination plants must also be fully self automated. I say this as a precaution, in case we have already hit the point of no return for modern civilization to continue. I have said to others this quote
"The 20th century was about the Earth adapting to humanity's exploitation of Earth's resources. The 21st Century will be about Humanity adapting to the Earth's reaction to that exploitation, and how we utilize our remaining resources to survive."I am now more concerned that even if we get the water redistributed and create the Lakes in deserts and begin the process of starting several new tropical rainforests, within a few decades, it may take several hundred years before a calm and peaceful bio-system returns. We have been spoiled by a recent cycle of history where we have been able to take the Earth's weather and tectonic activity for granted. Able to calculate weather, record and predict Earthquakes and Tsunamis and live through them. So in addition to Geo-engineering new Lakes and Rain forests, we should also look at where the heat is building - in the Arctic. One feedback loop that could be mitigated is the loss of reflective Sea Ice. By building floating islands that are painted white - we could mimic the reflectivity of the Sea Ice. In the short term would also stop the massive algae blooms27 in the Arctic and provide continued habitat for the animals dependent on ice floes to live on and keep from drowning. Also, as a matter of survival, there must be a massive program for redistribution of Electricity - similar to the REA (Rural Electrification Administration) except done through locally powered Solar panels and Wind turbines. Should we have an unprecedented storm or Earthquake power grids that function over large areas of Developed and even Undeveloped countries will be disabled, possibly for extended lengths of time. Locally powered homes must not just be a way to save on your power bill or being environmentally conscious, it must be a free program paid for internationally by Government funding. This also goes for water purification and usage. Roof rain collection devices must start being installed on homes and buildings and connected to large cisterns so that people have a safe and sanitary source of water. Lastly, locally grown food must begin to be implemented by every household as these same storms and events will make long distance travel more perilous and the system of food transport will be frequently disrupted. These programs must begin immediately, and our concern with differences in the World with races, religion and other previously divisive constructs must be left behind, as well as the expenditures on warfare. Every dollar spent going forward must be used for preparing for these rapidly approaching changes. In addition to this, as the Earth's Carbon Dioxide is reaching a level that has not existed in 400,000 years, and when the Earth's temperatures were much higher, we should expect massive spikes in Earth's temperatures to be coming soon. Much like in March of 2012 - when Chicago had 5 straight days of 80 degree weather - in a city that had only one 80 degree March day in history prior to that - we must prepare for new levels of heat. The Arctic is having 80 degree weather in the summer as well. As such - people should prepare their dwellings not only with the Cisterns and Solar power, but also should begin digging basements or underground dwelling space to stay in during the coming heat waves. Also, while every area is going to be affected in new ways, in the immediate future, Mainland Continents, particularly with high elevations must begin an open border policy for the World's Island peoples. I can not think of any more of a tragedy than losing the people with diverse cultures sprinkled around our planet living the Island life. Each of these cultures offer a unique perspective from their Island. To fail to act to bring them to shore would be a travesty - and we should act while we still have the usage of petroleum sea vessels to move them. Lastly, should the worst happen, that is, should the Heat of the Earth become unbearable for humanity to continue, we should begin creating living quarters in the Antarctic. This will remain the coldest place for the longest period of time. Perhaps in a few hundred years, when the Earth is done shaking and the new Lakes have created the Carbon consuming Rain forests, the Earth will return to a more human friendly environment and our civilization may re-emerge. Each of these proposals is not out of reach of our efforts, as long as the leaders of the World and Governments work together for our common survival rather than focusing on short term monetary concerns or political gain. The Pouring Man is here....